Kyiv, December 15, 2015 - A new global climate agreement has been adopted in Paris on December 12. The decision was supported by 192 countries. The agreement is planned to be signed on April 22, 2016. It will be followed by the process of ratification in the parliaments of the signatory countries. The new global ecology aim is to prevent the raise in the average temperature by more than 2 C
However even these measures will not fend the threat to the existence of a number of countries, primarily the island states. Thus the countries have also agreed to make very effort to prevent the raise by 1,5 C. For this purpose, the government of every state has prepared the expected nationally defined contribution (ENDC) to the new agreement which is a plan on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Ukraine has set the ENDC of no more than 60% of the 1990 basic year. The matter was dwelled upon during the briefing in the Ukrainian Crisis Media Centre by the Deputy Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine Svitlana Kolomiets.
“ENDCs are the national ambitions of the countries, what they aspire to. The conference largely discussed that the countries should be more ambitious. The experts estimate that even when strictly keeping to the proposed plans, the countries will only be able to prevent the raise by 2,7 C," emphasized Ms. Kolomiets. Therefore, the parties have agreed to review their ENDCs each 5 years in order to improve the rate. As to Ukraine, the decision was highly criticized due to the fact that the current emission level constitutes a little more than 40%. “It appears that the Ukrainian ENDC implies a high emission increase and the development scenario does not provide for any energy efficiency measures, any renewable energy sources rate growth or any changes in political area,” the Head of the Climate Change Department of the National Ecological Centre of Ukraine Iryna Stavchuk pointed out. The Head of the Ecology Department of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine Vladyslav Vezhnin commented that such level is associated with the general economic decline rather than the energy efficiency measures. He is convinced that Ukraine has much greater potential. The Deputy Minister added that in order to set a more ambitious aim, Ukraine requires resources and a definite strategy to shift to the alternate energy sources and abandon the fossil sources.
According to Ms. Stavchuk, "climate protecting policy is economically vital to Ukraine". We are talking about energy efficiency (insulation of buildings, reconstruction of housing, investments into energy efficient technologies) and development of renewable energy sources. This development path can provide economic growth. As the Advisor to the Head of the State Agency on Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Ukraine Kyrylo Tomlyak said, a few global initiatives which joined the activists, business etc. were born in Paris. One of them is Ukraine joining the Alliance of Housing and Building Energy Efficiency. The main purpose is to share experience and work out common international projects for quick and relevant reduction of gas emission due to energy efficient building of new constructions as well as thermal modernization of the existing ones. Mr. Tomlyak also mentioned that the discussions on substituting subsidies with targeted aid to make the process more transparent and facilitate the energy efficiency are taking place. He also said that Ukraine has a working programme of the energy efficient materials cost reimbursement for population.
Under the UN Development Programme in Ukraine a strategy of stable development is being worked out. Mr. Vezhnin added that the Ministry also works on the ecological strategy. This issue affects all of the Cabinet of Ministers and all the economy sectors. "All the officials should be involved in the implementation of this policy,” he said and expressed hope that the cooperation will develop a clear plan with specific steps and terms of its implementation.
According to Svitlana Kolomiets, the key difference of the new climate agreement from the Kyoto protocol lies in the absence of a set list of countries, divided in respect to their economic development. Instead the agreement deals with developed and developing countries without closed lists. Whether the country can provide help or requires help will be decided in each individual case. According to Mr. Vezhnin, the agreement sets the sum of 100 billion dollars, but does not state specifically the mechanism of their use and allocation. “We expect that the next on-topic meetings will work out such mechanism of help and financing. And that the system will include Ukraine," he added. "The key question is the correct system organization on the governmental level. This might include reforms or measures. Then these funds can be attained," emphasized Ms. Iryna Stavchuk.