Tuesday, 12 December 2017
STATE ECOLOGICAL MONITORING
Media key category: Activity
category: State Ecological Supervision

Operation of the State Environment Monitoring System

The Law of Ukraine "On Environmental Protection" (Articles 20, 22) provides for the establishment of State Environment Monitoring System (hereinafter – SEMS) and monitoring the state of the environment and the level of its pollution. These functions entrusted to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (hereinafter – the Ministry of Environment) and other central executive authorities, who are the subjects of the state environment monitoring system, as well as enterprises, institutions and organizations whose operations cause or may cause environmental degradation.

The basic principles of SEMS operations are specified in the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 30.03.1998 № 391 "On Approval of the Regulation on the State Environment Monitoring System."

Currently, performs its monitoring and information support functions are performed by 8 subjects the State Environment Monitoring System: the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Emergencies, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policy, the State Housing and Municipal Services Committee, the State Water Management Committee, the State Forestry Committee, the State Land Committee.

Each of the SEMS subjects monitors of the environmental objects that are specified by the Regulation on the State Environment Monitoring System and the procedures and regulations of the state monitoring of individual components of the environment.

The basic regulations governing the environmental objects monitoring are as follows:

  • Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 09.03.1999 № 343 "On Approval of the Procedure for Organization and Monitoring in the Field of Air Protection";
  • Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 20.07.1996 № 815 "On Approval of the Procedure for State Monitoring of Water";
  • Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 20.08.1993 № 661 "On Approval of the Regulation on Land Monitoring";
  • Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 26.02.2004 № 51 " On Approval of the Regulation on Monitoring of Soil on Agricultural Land."

To coordinate the activities of the ministries and agencies, identify the main principles of the state policy on the development of environmental monitoring system, ensuring its operation based on a single regulatory and methodological support, the Interagency Commission on Environmental Monitoring is established by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 17.11.2001 № 1551.

The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine provides organizational and technical support for the Commission and its sections.

In the existing environment monitoring system, the functions are distributed among its subjects and the system includes the subsystems subordinated to its subjects. Each subsystem at the level of individual subjects of the monitoring system has its structural and organizational, methodological and technical framework.

  • SEMS operates at three levels, which are determined based on the coverage:
  • national level, covering the monitoring priorities and objectives throughout the country;
  • regional level, covering the monitoring priorities and objectives across a region; and
  • local level, covering the monitoring priorities and objectives within certain areas with high anthropogenic load.

Monitoring Air Quality

The State Hydrometeorological Service (the Ministry of Emergencies) monitors air pollution in 53 Ukrainian cities and towns using 162 stationary sites, two route observation sites and two cross-border transfer stations.

The chemical composition of atmospheric precipitations and their acidity are under observation.

The program of compulsory monitoring of air quality includes seven pollutants: dust, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde (H2CO), lead and benzopyrene. Some stations carry out surveillance for additional contaminants. Precipitations and snow cover are also analyzed to determine whether they contain pollutants.

The State Environmental Inspectorate (the Ministry of Environment) provides a selective sampling on the sources of emissions. Over 65 parameters are measured.

The Sanitary and Epidemiological Service (the Ministry of Health) monitors air quality in residential and recreational areas, particularly near major roads, sanitary protection zones and residential buildings in schools, on the territories of kindergartens and hospitals in the cities and towns and in the working area. In addition, air quality in residential area is analyzed upon the receipt of complaints of residents.

Monitoring Land Water

The State Hydrometeorological Service (the Ministry of Emergencies) monitors hydrochemical state of water at 151 water bodies and carries out hydrobiological observations at 45 water bodies. The data are collected on 46 parameters, which allow assessment of the chemical composition of water, biogeneous parameters, presence of suspended particles and organic substances, the main pollutants, heavy metals and pesticides. 8 water bodies are observed for chronic toxicity of water. The indicators of radioactive contamination of surface waters are also determined.

The State Environmental Inspectorate (the Ministry of Environment) provides a selective sampling and obtains data on more than 65 parameters that are measured.

The State Committee for Water Management monitors rivers, reservoirs, canals, irrigation systems and pieces of water within multi-purpose water resources utilization systems, water supply systems, trans-border watercourses and reservoirs in zones around nuclear power plants. Water quality is monitored using physical and chemical parameters for 72 reservoirs, 164 rivers, 14 irrigation systems, 1 firth and 5 multi-purpose channels. In addition, as a part of radioactive monitoring, water management organizations monitor the amount of radio nuclides in surface waters.

The Sanitary and Epidemiological Service (the Ministry of Health) carries out observations over the sources of centralized and decentralized drinking water supply and recreation sites along rivers and reservoirs.

The enterprises of the State Geological Survey (the Ministry of Environment) monitor the state of groundwater. In the places of monitoring, the level of groundwater (occurrence), its natural geochemical composition is assessed. 22 parameters, including heavy metals and pesticides concentration are determined.

The Sanitary and Epidemiological Service (the Ministry of Health) provides chemical analysis of groundwater intended for drinking consumption.

Monitoring Coastal Waters

The State Hydrometeorological Service (the Ministry of Emergencies) operates a coastal water monitoring network, which includes monitoring stations in the places of waste water disposal and research stations located in the coastal areas of the Black and Azov Seas. The existing stations measure 16 to 26 hydro chemical parameters of water and bottom sediments.

The State Inspectorates of Black and Azov seas (the Ministry of Environment) operate their own monitoring systems. Their responsibilities include monthly sampling and analysis of the impact of pollution sources located on the coast; monitoring of discharges from ships; pollution resulted from activities of exploration and extraction of oil, gas and building materials offshore; supervising the use of marine living resources.

The State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service (the Ministry of Health) monitors the quality of seawater in the areas of recreation and recreational water use.

Monitoring Soils

The State Hydrometeorological Service (the Ministry of Emergencies) monitors soil contamination of agricultural lands with pesticides and heavy metals in the settlements. The samples are taken every five years, the samples for heavy metals tests in the towns of Kostiantynivka and Mariupol are taken every year.

The State Environmental Inspectorate (the Ministry of Environment) provides sampling at industrial sites throughout the country. Altogether, 27 parameters are measured.

The institutions of the Ministry of Health monitor soil conditions in the territories of their possible negative impact on the health of the population. These are mostly the areas covered by the cultivation of agricultural products, the areas where pesticides are used, soils in residential areas, children playgrounds and schools. Soil samples taken in the places of storage of toxic wastes on the territory of enterprises and outside such territories in the places of storage or disposal are investigated.

The Ministry of Agricultural Policy monitors the use of agricultural soils. Radiological, agro-chemical and toxicological indicators, the residual amount of pesticides, chemicals and heavy metals are determined.

Monitoring Indicators of Biodiversity

Due to the limited budgetary funding, monitoring is only carried out over the species that are of industrial interest (trees, fish and game).

The enterprises of the State Forestry Committee monitor forest vegetation in 24 regions of the country. They assess the biomass, its damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors; hunting fauna, biodiversity, radiological measures.

Some studies are carried out with international support, or under the international programs.

Monitoring Radiation

The State Hydrometeorological Service (the Ministry of Emergencies) monitors radioactive contamination of the atmosphere by daily measurements of doses of gamma radiation exposure (GRE), impaction of radioactive particles from the atmosphere and the content of radioactive aerosols in the air. 8 water bodies are monitored for radioactive contamination of surface waters. The State Hydrometeorological Service measures radioactive pollution of surface waters with cesium-137 and soil pollution around nuclear power plants.

The monitoring laboratories of the Ministry of Agricultural Policy carry out control in the areas of concentration of radioactive substances in soils and foods.

The Ministry of Emergencies monitors GRE doses at 10 automated stations near nuclear power plants. Within the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (exclusion zone), the Ministry monitors the concentration of radio nuclides, the radio nuclides in atmospheric precipitations and concentration of "hot" particles in the air. The International Radioecology Laboratory of Chornobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Wastes and Radioecology located in Slavutych monitors the effects of radiation on biota in the exclusion zone.

Information Interaction

The subjects of SEMS have created or are in process of developing their corporate database containing monitoring information. The existing system of information interaction between the corporate environmental monitoring subsystems provides for the exchange of information at the national and regional levels. Organizational integration of subjects of environment monitoring at all levels is performed by the Ministry of Environment and its regional bodies.

To streamline the exchange of information by indicators and by deadlines of providing environmental information, the bilateral agreements between the Ministry of Environment and the subjects of SEMS on cooperation in environmental monitoring are concluded, specifying relevant procedures for sharing environmental information.

The on-line monitoring information is sent by the territorial bodies of the SEMS to regional environmental monitoring centers or to the state departments of environmental protection in the regions.

The summarized analytical information is provided by ministries and agencies – the subjects of SEMS of the Ministry of Environment.

The received data are submitted to Information and Analytical Centre of the Ministry of Environment and accumulated in the ecological data banks.

Based on received monthly and quarterly information, the Ministry of Environment issues the informational and analytical review "State of Environment in Ukraine", which is distributed to interested users.

Operations of the Information and Analytical Center of the Ministry of Environment provides for information exchange with regional centers of environment monitoring, the subjects of the state environmental monitoring system, creation of the uniform environmental data bank, comprehensive analysis of the environment etc.

By its Resolution of 05.12.2007 № 1376, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine approved the State Special-Purpose Program of Environmental Monitoring.

The program aims to combine the efforts of all the subjects of the monitoring system to exclude duplication and enabling advanced features of monitoring, creation of the unified monitoring network based on optimization of its elements and observation programs and improvement of technical, methodological, metrological and scientific operation of the single monitoring network. To ensure the integration of information resources, the subjects of the environment monitoring system provides for the establishment and operation of a single subsystem of automated collection, processing, analysis and storage of data and information derived from monitoring.

The State Special-Purpose Program of Environmental Monitoring provides for, inter alia, expansion of the automated stations network to observe air pollution in ecologically dangerous cities.

LIST

of the Orders of the Ministry of Environment of Ukraine

on Environment Monitoring

Title of the document

Number

Date of approval

1

"On approval of the instruction on inventory of emissions of heavy metals into the air"

298

09.08.2001

2

"Integrated interagency guidance on organization and implementation of state monitoring of water"

485

24.12.2001

3

"Methodological guidelines for preparation of regional and national environment monitoring program"

487

24.12.2001

4

"On Approval of the "Regulations on the procedure and criteria of state registration of objects that produce or may produce harmful effect on the health of people and the state of the air, the types and amounts of pollutants released into the air""

177

10.05.2002

5

"Regulations on information exchange between the Ministry of Environment of Ukraine and other subjects of the environment monitoring system in the process of routine observations of the environment" (KND 211.0.1.101-02)

323

21.08.2002

6

"Guidelines for the comparison of water monitoring data" (RD 211.1.8.103-2002)

325

21.08.2002

7

"Methodological guidelines for the inventory of analytical control laboratories" (RD 211.0.7.104-02)

325

21.08.2002

8

"Methodological guidelines and requirements for equipping typical on-line water control items" (RD 211.1.7.105-02)

325

21.08.2002

9

"Nomenclature and designation of the structural elements of the State Environment Monitoring System" (KND 211.0.6.102-02)

324

21.08.2002

10

"Organization and carrying out observations of the pollution of surface water (within the system of Ministry of Natural Resources)" (KND 211.1.1.106-2003)

89-М

04.06.2003

11

"On approval of the Procedure for providing environmental information"

167

18.12.2003

12

"Methodological guidelines on establishment of environment monitoring system at regional level"

467

16.12.2005

13

"On providing environmental information"

218

16.04.2007

14

"Guidance on integrated environmental assessment at regional level"

584

14.11.2008

 

 

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